Category: 未分类


我准备花半年的时间,将此份由近30位来自斯坦福,普林斯顿大学以及麻省理工学院的科学家共同编撰的学术论文翻译成中文。

此份学术论文主要讲述在未来,人类长期在外太空定居,需要克服的各种难题。全面的论述外太空殖民地具体的设计方法和理念。

外太空永久殖民地的建立,将集合人类所有的智慧,本文将涉及到天文学,生物工程学,机械工程学,物理学,社会和心理学,经济学,建筑与环境设计,系统学,工业工程设计,材料学,地质学等等。

我知道这是个大坑,但我还是决定跳了。

本文将持续更新。

目录

* 设计的讨论
* 前言
* 引语
* 参与本文的编撰者

Chapter 1 – 外太空殖民

* 总体系统
* 设计的目标
* 关于设计的历史思维
* 参考资料

Chapter 2 – 太空的物理特性

* 太空的地形
* 太阳辐射:充裕且本质的能量来源
* 太空中的物质:重要的资源
* Appendix A – 小行星和太空栖息地
* Appendix B – 太空中的电离辐射
* 参考资料

Chapter 3 – 人类在太空中的需求

* 失重:模拟重力是必须的
* 大气:少量即可
* 食物和水
* 来自环境的心理压力:也许不会非常的重要
* 减轻心理压力的环境设计
* 小尺寸和孤立
* 设计标准总结
* Appendix A – 心理和文化上的考量
* Appendix B – 太空里的需求和众多的社区活动
* 参考资料

Chapter 4 – 备选方案

* 殖民地的外形
* 隔离层
* 如何应对标准的改变
* 建造技术
* 殖民地内的居民
* 生命支持系统
* 卫星太阳能站点:无备选方案
* 殖民地应该放置在何处?
* 太空中采集矿物,交通以及加工
* 交通系统
* 总结
* Appendix A 设计用的材料属性
* Appendix B 殖民地各项参数
* Appendix C 重力是建筑费用的计量表
* Appendix D 等离子核防护罩
* Appendix E 真空中蒸汽制造的结构
* Appendix F 内部建筑材料和组件
* Appendix G 人口分布和趋势
* Appendix H 卫星太阳能站点(SSPS)
* Appendix I 金属加工
* Appendix J 玻璃加工
* Appendix K 月球气枪质量加速器
* Appendix L 被动捕获器
* Appendix M 太空运输系统
* Appendix N 太空穿梭机对臭氧层的影响
* 参考资料

Chapter 5 – 殖民地旅行(以第一人称描述未来的殖民地)

* 地球到近地轨道
* 殖民地的居民
* 殖民地的生产
* 月球基地
* 质量捕获器
* 地球家园
* Appendix A 防护罩结构的设计理念
* Appendix B 居住结构系统
* Appendix C 农业
* Appendix D  生产制造
* Appendix E  重力防护罩
* Appendix F 重力驱动器
* Appendix G 重力捕获器
* Appendix H 月球到殖民地轨道
* Appendix I  旋转粒状发射器
* Appendix J 对月球大气的影响
* Appendix K Chevron防护罩
* 参考资料

Chapter 6 – 建造殖民地并使其繁荣

* 筹备工作
* 材料和供给
* 运输和建造
* 预估的费用和时间
* 能源产品将是潜在的经济效益
* 太空的司法
* Appendix A 太空殖民地的费用参数
* Appendix B 月球SSPS能源
* Appendix C   飞回F-1
* Appendix D  SSPS的预估费用和时间,以及更多的SSPS
* Appendix E 电能的优点
* Appendix F SSPS复合材料的变量以及额外的殖民地SSPS
* Appendix G 殖民地产生的利益预估
* Appendix H  微波电能传输带来的环境影响
* 参考资料

Chapter 7 –  面向未来

* 除了能源之外的优点
* 深太空的研究
* 深太空的火箭引擎
* 运输
* 小行星的资源
* 建造的新方法
* 殖民地设计
* 自动化和产出
* 增长的限制
* 一些经济方面的考量

Chapter 8 – 建议和总结

* 研究与开发临界子系统的建议
* 太空投资的建议
* 总结

The Great Filter

With no evidence of intelligent life other than ourselves, it appears that the process of starting with a star and ending with “advanced explosive lasting life” must be unlikely. This implies that at least one step in this process must be improbable. Hanson’s list, while incomplete, describes the following nine steps in an “evolutionary path” that results in the colonization of the observable universe:

1. The right star system (including organics & potentially habitable planets)
2. Reproductive molecules (e.g. RNA)
3. Simple (prokaryotic) single-cell life
4. Complex (archaeatic & eukaryotic) single-cell life
5. Sexual reproduction
6. Multi-cell life
7. Tool-using animals with big brains
8. Where we are now
9. Colonization explosion

According to the Great Filter hypothesis at least one of these steps – if the list were complete – must be improbable. If it’s not an early step (i.e. in our past), then the implication is that the improbable step lies in our future and our prospects of reaching step 9 (interstellar colonization) are still bleak. If the past steps are likely, then many civilizations would have developed to the current level of the human race. However, none appear to have made it to step 9, or the Milky Way would be full of colonies. So perhaps step 9 is the unlikely one, and the only thing that appears likely to keep us from step 9 is some sort of catastrophe. So by this argument, finding multicellular life on Mars (provided it evolved independently) would be bad news, since it would imply steps 2–6 are easy, and hence only 1, 7, 8 or 9 (or some unknown step) could be the big problem.

Although steps 1–7 have occurred on Earth any one of these may be unlikely. If the first seven steps are necessary preconditions to calculating the likelihood (using the local environment) then an anthropically biased observer can infer nothing about the general probabilities from its (pre-determined) surroundings.

尽管宇宙中的绝大部分星系都在逐渐远离银河系,但离我们最近的仙女系,正以120km/s的速度接近银河系。

在接下来的20亿年,仙女系将和银河系碰撞,在潮汐力的作用下,2个星系的外缘将会变形,成为巨大的潮汐尾。

如果最初的变形确实发生,天文学家估计,太阳系有12%的几率被吸入银河系的潮汐尾,3%的几率逐渐地因为万有引力被仙女系吸引,从而成为仙女座的一部分。

在接下来的一系列碰撞中,太阳系从银河系脱离的几率提高到30%,最终在70亿年,2个星系中部的超级黑洞将融合,银河系和仙女座将融合成为一个新的巨型椭圆星系。

在这个融合过程中,如果有足够的气态物质存在,逐渐增强的引力将迫使气态物质向星系中部集中,这将导致一个短期并密集的新星体诞生期,被称为星爆。此时中部的气态物质将会填充刚刚融合的黑洞,将其变成一个活动星系核。这个互动过程可能将整个太阳系推到新星系的外缘光环区,太阳系相对来说会避开星系碰撞时的辐射。

很多人认为,这种大规模的星系碰撞会破坏太阳系内部星体的轨道。确实会有这种情况发生,例如一个大质量星体会导致小型星系内的星体脱离轨道,逃逸到外太空。但星体之间的距离是如此之远,银河系与仙女系的碰撞造成太阳系星体脱离轨道的概率可以忽略不计。也许整个太阳系会被影响到,但星系内部的星体是不会被干扰到的。

尽管如此,经过时间以及概率的累积,新的星系内产生越来越多的星体,太阳系内部星体被干扰的可能性越来越来,直到不可避免。太阳系中的太阳也许能幸存,但最终,在10 x10的17次方年,已经死去的太阳及其他星体,将被附近的星体撕裂。整个太阳系,从任何角度来说,都将不复存在。

-Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia

The Ruling Passion

The Ruling Passion是由John Everett Millais创作的一副油画,首次展示于1885年英国伦敦的皇家学会展。

油画展示了一位老人斜靠在躺椅上,向大家展示一只被填充的天堂鸟标本,周围有一群孩子和妇女。油画左边的年纪稍大的女孩手里拿着一只华丽绿咬鹃,周围散落了其他种类的天堂鸟标本。

孩子们的态度各不相同,2个小家伙显然已经被迷恋,而左边的女孩已经近乎厌倦。

这幅油画是由画家和他的儿子John Guille Millais去一个朋友家做客后激发的创意,他的朋友John Gould是个鸟类学家,在画家拜访后不久就去世了。在画家回去的路上,他兴奋的跟儿子说,”这是个好的题材,极好的题材。有时间我要做一副画”。事实上直到John Gould去世多年后,Millias才有时间做此油画。画中的老人并是不鸟类学家本人,而是画家的一个雕刻师朋友,场景也是后期创作的,2个小家伙是画家的孙子,另外2个则是专业的模特。

Sep 28,1928 – Scottish biologist and pharmacologist Alexander Fleming  noticed a bacteria-killing mold growing in his laboratory, discovering what became known as penicillin.

In 1999, Time Magazine named Fleming one of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th Century for his discovery of penicillin, and stated:

It was a discovery that would change the course of history. The active ingredient in that mould, which Fleming named penicillin, turned out to be an infection-fighting agent of enormous potency. When it was finally recognised for what it was, the most efficacious life-saving drug in the world, penicillin would alter forever the treatment of bacterial infections. By the middle of the century, Fleming’s discovery had spawned a huge pharmaceutical industry, churning out synthetic penicillins that would conquer some of mankind’s most ancient scourges, including syphilis, gangrene and tuberculosis.

My Windows Live Space moved to WordPress.

Old URL: emmentaldesavoie.space.live.com has made obsolete.

New Space URL: emmentaldesavoie.wordpress.com

On September 27, 2010 Microsoft accnouced that it will partner with wordpress.com to move over than 30 million active users to a platform that is based on the free software publishing tool, wordpress.

Monas, Jakarta

Famous Quotes

One of the very difficult parts of the decision I made on the financial crisis was to use the hardworking people’s money to help prevent there to be a crisis.

– George W. Bush

Remember, doctors are not experts, they only practice medicine.

– Richard Harris

Without hard working, nothing grows but weeds.

– Gordon B. Hinckley

The weather is like the government, always in the wrong.

– Jerome K

A man may die, nation may rise and fall, but an idea lives on.

– John F. Kennedy

If you don’t want to work, you have to work to earn enough money so that you won’t have to work.

– Ogden Nash

Nobody believes the official spokesman, but everybody trusts an unidentified source.

– Ron Nesen

The golden rule of work is that the bosses jokes are ALWAYS funny.

– Robert Paul

I’m not trying to be sexy. It’s just my way of expressing myself when I move around.

– Elvis Presley

Government can’t solve the problem. Government IS the problem.

– Ronald Reagan

Britain has invented a new missile. It’s called the civil servant- it doesn’t work and it can’t be fired.

– Walter Walker

A kiss may ruin a human life.

– Oscar Wilde

God gave men both a penis and a brain, but unfortunately not enough blood supply to run both at the same time.

– Robin Williams


Medieval Quotes

After dark, all cats are leopards.
– Zuni proverb

War begin when you will, but they do not end when you please.
– Niccolo Machiavelli

I speak Spanish to God, Italian to women, French to men and German to my horse.
– King Charles V King of France

It is easy to brave behind a castle wall.
– Welsh proverb

Following the light of the sun, we left the old world.
– Christopher Columbus

Drink is the curse of the land. It makes you fight with your neighbour. It makes you shoot at your landlord and it makes you miss him.
– Irish proverb

Disasters teach us humility.
– Saint Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury

It is not titles that honour men, but men that honour titles.
– Niccolo Machiavelli

Wisdom comes only when you stop looking for it and start living the life the creator intended for you.
– Hopi proverb